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Seen in a 45º mirrored surface which aids observation, Dr George Kemenes, University of Sussex, delicately tickles the underside of a Common Pond Snail as a procedure in his research into memory. The behaviour of the snails can be affected by both positive and negative reinforcement, and the tickling is a negative component. Once established, the Pavlovian behaviour pattern is retained as a memory for up to 21 days following its cessation and sheds light on the formation of memory, with implications for understanding Alzheimers and other CNS diseases. Copyright © James King-Holmes 2006. No unlicensed reproduction in print or by electronic media, storage or syndication  must be carried out without permission and payment of the appropriate fees. <br />
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